Saturday, December 24, 2011


HQ - Part 3

I thought I had picked up enough plastic to finish the bridge, but alas, I still need some Plastruct railings.  But you get the general idea.

The roadway is styrene and the sidewalks some extra walkway material.

I am also trying to finish my two bessemer converters.  Before painting I wanted to add a little grit to the surface of these machines as in most of the photos I have seen, they are pretty grimy.   I used a product from Vallejo - Sandy Paste to add some roughness to the smooth surfaces.  We will see how it turns out after paint.

Sunday, December 18, 2011

HQ - Part 2

As part of the Raritan Steel HQ building I need to build a small road bridge connecting the office parking lot to the rest of the world (actually the edge of the layout) .  I took two cheap Atlas Thru Truss bridges and combined and modified them to carry a roadway.  Mostly done, except I need to buy some plastic to build two walkways on either side of the bridge.
Adding a section to make a longer bridge and reinforcing with strip styrene

Semi-Finished structure sans roadway and sidewalk outriggers.


Having run all the wiring for the Lower Works East Panel I managed to hook up the two electrically controlled Tortice switch machines on the wye and all the associated switches and LEDs worked great - the route is denoted by the green LEDs on the panel.    The next step was firing up the primary mill staging yard.  This five track hidden staging yard has four turnouts with your basic Atlas electric throws.  I wanted to be able to press a single button on the panel, and all the turnouts align themselves to that track - sounds simple but is actually fairly complicated.  It is doable by a using a diode matrix, but I chose a different route and as I mentioned in an earlier post, I am using a NCE Mini Panel to accomplish the same task.  The wiring was simple in that I used five momentary single pole push buttons - attached a common ground to one lug on all of them and connected this to the ground bus on my main wiring board.   Then I ran a single wire from each of the remaining lugs back to the Mini Panel and attached to terminals 1 thru 5.   Basically, whenever a button is pushed it triggers the micro controller on the Mini Panel to execute whatever commands have been programed for that specific input.   The inputs are programed by plugging in a throttle directly to jack on the Mini-Panel for that purpose - you just follow the prompts and can program up to four lines of commands for each input.  For a five track staging yard, the maximum number of commands needed would be four anyway - one command for each of the four switch machines.   For a larger staging yard I can still use the Mini-Panel, but I'll just have to link to a second input once I get past track five - this will give me four more command lines but at the cost of two inputs (the Mini-Panel has 30 and there is no limit to the number of Mini-Panels you can use)  
Programming the Mini-Panel

I do need to stop for a second and explain how the turnouts receive the commands - the switch machines are connected to a Digitraxx DS-64.  This is a stationary decoder with four locations.  So the switch machines in this yard are designated DCC Accessories 1-4  . So when it comes to programming the Mini-Panel say for Track 4 of the yard - this would be Input #4.    The first command line would throw Accessory #1 Reverse, Line 2 - ACC #2 Normal, Line 3 - ACC #3 Normal, and Line 4 ACC #4 Reverse.   So now when I press the button for Track 4, all those switch machines are thrown to the correct alignment designated by the program.  There is a time delay between throwing each machine in the sequence so the process can take a few seconds.    The last thing I have to do for this panel is connect the indicator LEDs for the Yard - again not as simple as it looks.  I need to cascade a set of alternate contacts for the switch machines - I will have to use Atlas Snap Relays wired in parallel off the DS-64 and connect their contacts in a way that will only power one LED .  If I had used Tortice Machines I would have had their set of contacts built in and not have had to buy Snap Relays.
Mini-Panel top Left, DS-64 just under.  Only the beginning of much more wiring.

Sunday, December 11, 2011


After drawing the control panel faces and printing them out, my wife was kind enough to laminate the printed drawing for me.  As a backer I used 1/8" plywood and with spray adhesive glued on the laminated panel drawing.  This will then be drilled for electronics and mounted to the control panel cases with screws.

Laminated print out and 1/8" plywood backer

Speaking of controls, we managed to get WiThrottle up and running so now anyone can use their I-Phone, touch, or pad to operate trains on our layout.  With throttles running $100 or so we are counting on WiThrottle to augment our deficiency in the throttle department.  I guess some of you are asking, what is WiThrottle?  WiThrottle is an app for an IPhone, IPad, or ITouch, that you can purchase from the Apple.  It was actually developed by Brett,  a member of our Friday night operating group.   How does it work?   The WiThrottle app used a local wireless network to connect with the computer running JMRI, which in turn, is connected to the DCC system you are using.   The advantage of WiThrottle is that since it interfaces with JMRI it is an universal throttle that will work with Digitrax as easy as NCE, of course so long as your DCC system is connected with a computer.  Because you are using a wifi network, the signal is much stronger than what your typical DCC wireless system is capable of so you don't have to worry about loss of signal,...etc..   What's the downside?  The only real issue becomes if your wireless network has security, you will need to give out your password to WiThrottle users, or, do what we did and create a separate network for your model railroad.  
An ITouch with the WiThrottle App, controlling to locomotive in the background.

HOW?  I'll detail exactly how we set all this up - it should be fairly universal although there might be some difference with how your specific DCC interfaces with JMRI.  In our case we pulled an old Dell desktop computer out of storage. It runs on Windows XP and was a pretty basic model when bought.  It lacks a wireless card so all network connections must be over wires.   We modified our benchwork to fit the bulky old monitor and computer into the edge of our layout.  It is located about 6 feet or so from the NCE control box and they connect using a serial cable.  These are hard to find, and expensive from radio shack, however, you can find them very cheap at All Electronics online.  I had to buy two to connect together and to reach the computer without stretching.   Back to the computer - I dumped the hard drive as they were totally virused up and just loaded the basics that I would need.  Then I downloaded the latest version of JMRI.  This is a free download.  Since there was no wireless card in the computer I just stretched a 50' cat5 cable from the computer, upstairs to my router and plugged it in - only to download JMRI.  You then follow the prompts to set up JMRI for your specific arrangement.  From then on when you load JMRI it should recognize your DCC system, NCE in our case and say so on the title screen.
The JMRI Screen showing one WiThrottle in use.

In our case we wanted to have a separate wireless network for only the model railroad that we could leave unprotected so it would be easy for guests to access.  This was as simple as purchasing a cheap older model wireless router - most routers are now N type, but I used an older G type as many of the N type needed a newer version of windows to set up.   I just plugged the router in and ran a Cat 5 line from the computer to one of the hardline ports on the back of the router.   So when someone turns on WiThrottle on their device, the network will come up as available.  There is a window you open in JMRI to turn on WiThrottle and it will list all the devices being used.   Fear not, if you have an Android phone there is an app available for your phone also.

Wednesday, December 7, 2011


As part of my continuing wiring program I'm installing control panels throughout the layout.  I had built the boxes for a few panels and even partially finished the front of one when I change my mind about the size of the panels.  Originally they were roughly 11x17, with the main panel being even larger.  After seeing much smaller local control panels on Rick Bickmore's fine layout I realized that I could do things much smaller and seeing how I have limited space anyway, smaller would be better.  Not wanting to waste my existing panel work I actually threw the old panel boxes on the miter saw and chopped them up into two small pieces, only having to add on new side.  The resulting panels are roughly 7x10 inches.   For the faces I have been drawing the panel layout using a bare-bones Apple paint/draw utility program and then printing it out onto photo paper.  I then laminate the photo paper and then glue the laminated drawing to my backer panel - 1/8" masonite or plastic and then just drill the holes for LEDs and switches on the drill press and assemble.   The main panel will still be large and I am going to probably use a steel plate for the backer so the dispatcher can use magnets to represent trains.  The main panel will control all turnouts on the main, while the local panels will control any local switches using electric machines as well as provide local operators with a track schematic.  Some locals and or the main panel will have overlap with dual controls for some turnouts - more on that wiring later.   For now - a copy of the Lower Works Branch - West panel.

Typical Panel 

Sunday, December 4, 2011


Had a semi-productive weekend.  The newly extended Lower Works Branch was finally linked back to the main with the help of Jimmy installing flex track is a very tight area.  I also took the time to lay all the spurs to the forge shop, the heat treatment shop, the lower foundry track, and Machine Shop #2.   Jimmy also climbed up on the platform to lay cork on the branch line up to the coal dock.  This branch is another example of my poor layout planing skills as the middle 8' of it are virtually unreachable from the aisle and I still need to add track, landforms, scenery, backdrop painting,...etc..   Wiring work continues - I put back the circuit breaker board and track feeds into the Coke Works Branch control panel.  I also wiring in a few BD-40 occupancy detectors.  The wiring ahead seems endless, so much for DCC simplifying things.

I added some additional piping to the gas bleeder stack, essentially finishing this structure.  I'll give it the once over with some files and sandpaper and then prime and paint it.
Bleeder in roughly the position it will permanently occupy.
We managed to fit in a quick road trip this weekend, visiting a bunch of railroad, model railroad, and non-railroad sites in South Jersey.   One stop, the Patcong Valley Model Railroad Club featured some very fine modeling and my wife enjoyed looking for the hidden aliens scattered throughout the layout.   Just adjacent to this club, the real Cape May Seashore Lines Railroad was running their Santa Clause specials. Odd looking train with three or four Budd RDC between  Pennsy and CNJ first generation Geeps.
CNJ GP-7 in Richland, NJ (On former PRSL Trackage)
Some additional South Jersey rural railroading in Woodstown, NJ
Very Lightly Traveled Branch to Salem, NJ - Track is in horrible condition and Speed limit is 5mph.
SW something at Woodstown, NJ

Friday, December 2, 2011


More or less a finished product,...     Still going to add some sort of electrical conduit and a junction box or two along side the caged ladder.  Switched up this time and used the Tichy caged ladder over the Plastruct.  I'm not sure why I shied away from these before but they look much better than the heavy Plastruct models, abet a little harder to build.   Using the Tichy also allowed me to angle the bottom 20' of the ladder in a seamless fashion like the prototype, with I think very good results.  The Tichy is also cheaper, plus you get railings, stairs, and other parts on the same sprue.   The usual round platform work ensued, along with some rod materials at the top of the structure and boxy equipment boxes just under the top platform, serviceable from the lower platform.  I also added a second pipe to the base with a lid and hex rod slices as bolts - this would be used as some sort of service door.
Bleeder Tower

We were working outside this past weekend and in the process of moving things around and came across a portion of my old brick collection.  My kids were amazed that I used to collect bricks back during my college years and I think in their eyes my dorkiness level was raised to all time high.  Some relation to the steel industry as many of the bricks are fire bricks collected in the Perth Amboy, NJ area.  Steel mills were a prime market for these clay industries.
Part of my brick collection 

I also received an early Christmas present in the form of some beautiful ladle castings from Brandon Wehe.  These are truly fine castings and are no comparison to my nascent attempts at producing commercial resin castings.  These ladles will find good use in my open hearth.
Ladle Castings by Brandon Wehe

Tuesday, November 29, 2011


There are only a few elements of the By-Products plant that I haven't built yet, the Bleeder Stack being one.  This is your basic waste gas burner or bleeder, common in steel mills and oil refineries.   Once again I am basing my model on the Thomas Coke prototype.

I started with a simple base structure I turned on the lathe out of some scrap wood.  I turned the horizontal rings of the base in place and also drilled a small hole for the stack.  I added some styrene strip to the base structure and fabricated hold down bolts and their cast fittings using strip, tube, and hex strip.  Still plenty of work to be done on the stack.

Bleeder Stack Base

Full Structure - Stack needs work

Sunday, November 20, 2011


Work continues on the ship and other structures but I've also been redoing much of the wiring on the layout.  It's one of those things where I didn't really have a plan so just started shoving stuff everywhere, eventually to the point of having a big mess that I couldn't even figure out what wire went where, and also, not having room for signal circuit boards and stationary decoders,...etc.   And to help things out and order from All Electronics and Yankee Dabbler (DCC components) arrived last week.   Two real cool items in these packages - besides wire, switches,...etc.. I ordered some ultra-violet LEDs -  I am going to mount these in the ceilings of several of my structures that handle hot iron or steel - specifically to set off my new resin slag, iron and steel loads.  I've been casting these in a fluorescent yellow-orange, and they look good as is, but under black light they look even better.  NOTE - These will be commercially available soon.  

Ultra-violet LED and "hot" steel load
Another arrival was a NCE "Mini-Panel".  This nifty piece of engineering is a circuit board that has the potential for many many different applications.  Simply, it has 15 pairs of inputs, to which you can connect switches (electrical), detectors, ,...etc  anything that would close the circuit.  In response the chip on the circuit board is programed to execute up to four DCC commands for each input pair.  Essentially it allows you to access DCC features from a traditional control panel.  The possibilities are endless as you can access engine, turnout, signal, macros,....etc.. .  There is a video on You Tube in which a model railroader used the Mini Panel to automate a locomotive switching a small array of turnouts and track, including, speed changes, horn and bell sounds,....etc.  Despite only having four command lines you can use a "link" feature to extend your program, although, you loose another input pair for every four command lines.   The first use of this device for me will be for automatic route control for my hidden primary mill staging.  

NCE Mini Panel
In addition to model railroading we hit the trail this weekend for a quick backpacking trip up in New York.  Not Boy Scouts, just my son and a few friends of mine from work.   Same area of New York that we did last April.  Take New Jersey Transit Train into New York City - hike from Penn Station to Grand Central - Metro North Hudson Line (ex NYC mainline) to Garrison, NY.  Trail starts at station - hike a variety of trails in the Castle Rock Unique area and the Osborne Preserve and eventually link up to the Appalachian Trail.  Take the trail to the monastery on top of the mountain and spend the night there - reverse trip on sunday.  Some photos - 

Camping on the Monastery Ball Field

Metro-North Locomotive - Runs on Diesel or Third Rail (south of Croton-Harmon)
West Point

Sunday, November 13, 2011

S.S. VALHALLA - Part 5

An old Mainline Modeler magazine I bought at TImonium got me thinking about the Valhalla again, specifically some of the deck arrangements,...etc.     First however, I had to take care of some basics - first the anchor chain holes had to be drilled, along with holes for the various crane posts.

You can see anchor and anchor chain holes at very front of vessel.  Other, larger holes , are for the crane poles.
You will also notice that I have finished all the angled supports between the deck and the hull sides.  Then I turned my attention to the hull sides - adding the rivet bands that will give the ship the affect of a riveted hull.

Banding on sides is .020x.188 styrene strip with rivets embossed
Finally, I started installing some of the crane posts.

Posts are 5/16" tubing

Friday, November 11, 2011


Finally I was able to get back to some modeling this past week.  The Ensley Mixer project had been at a standstill for awhile - My original roller assembly was solid modeling, just not to scale - the rollers turned out to be too large.  Disgusted with wasting the time I set this aside, but with construction on the Bessemer Plant underway, the mixer will soon be needed.   So, I built the cast supports for the mixer using a variety of solid plastic and plastic strips.  The webbing was punched out and holes filed to size.   Roller assemblies were constructed of 1/4" tubing and solid styrene.  Also, an elevated concrete foundation was built and the four access hatches were molded in resin.

Assembly photos to follow, but first a new product alert - Central Valley has come out with another type of girder assembly.  As you have seen over the years, I love these products and this is just one more type to add to my structures.
New Central Valley Girders

Assembling Cast Bases for Mixer

Foundation and finished supports

Building rollers
Finished Roller Assmebly

Monday, October 31, 2011

Free-mo ing at Timonium

We were back in Timonium this weekend with the Capitol Area Free-mo group.   The set-up this time included about 7 or 8 modules.  Most were in the semi-finished or finished state so overall I would say the   overall layout looked the best it has ever, and a far improvement from last October.   The electronics are improving and we are able to break the whole thing down fast - less than a half an hour.  With the snow on Saturday and the MER convention going on it appeared to me that the show had light attendance.   Also, along the lines of better organization, we had a run chief that arranged the modules and also set-up our first organized operating session.

Some photos from the weekend:

Mostly a straight line setup with a few minor turns.
Pipe Foundry Module in center, blast furnace off to right.
Moving a cut of bottle cars from the blast furnace to the BOF
Slag cars need to be moved to dump
Bottle cars holding next to large bag house (unfinished) on Pipe Foundry module

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Some More Bethlehem for Now

The trip was a nice break but right back into the work grinder.   So for now, just a quick post and a few more Bethlehem photos.
Machine Shop #2
A few corrections to my last post -

*The purple furnaces were for the cure cancer month
*The terrain around the Lehigh Gap I talked about it being more rocky and barren - thanks to years of emissions from the NJ Zinc company in Palmerton.   (Note- they make this stuff in PA far from NJ, but my home state still gets blamed anyway)
*No "jackhole artist" was responsible for the Chinese Character on the building but rather it was "Jackhole Hollywood" people when they were filming the transformers there.

Cranes near Steel Stacks Entrance 
Notable this month -

Randy Costanza's Coke Works was featured in the recent Great Model Railroads .  Congratulations Randy.

Also, both the November issue of Model Railroader and the November issue of Railroad Model Craftsman both had good waterfront railroading articles.  And the RMC had a good article on modeling Susquehanna RS-1's.

Blowing Engines from outdoor deck at Steel Stacks

Work continues on the railroad - wiring and scenery mostly, although getting back to a few steel things.

Holy Powerlines Batman!
Lehigh Heavy Forge

Sunday, October 16, 2011

A Little Breather

Usually my wife and me take an early fall extended weekend trip (Pittsburgh last year) but this year that looked like a no-go due to work  - until - a hole opened up in my schedule that would leave me free this past weekend.  Since it was only to be a two night, two day deal we couldn't go too far.  Luckily, living in New Jersey, there are a lot of options close by.  New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore/DC are all within an short drive, as are the Pocono Mountains, the Jersey Shore, and the Eastern Shore of MD/DE.   We ended up picking the mountains - the fall colors would be out earlier,  my wife wanted to go to the Jim Thorpe fall festival, and I of course, would find the usual steel, railroad, and hobby store sites along the way.    A recent post on the Yahoo Steel Group had me thinking about Bethlehem and seeing how the Sands Casino on the former steel mill site had just opened up a hotel, we could use that as our base of operations.

We left Friday night and after a short hour plus ride to Bethlehem we arrived at Bethlehem just at dusk.  It looked like some stores were still open so we did a little shopping, trying to beat the 7pm closing times of most of the shops.   The Moravian Book Store has a nice Bethlehem Steel Section and also a neat local history section.  The ghost tours were just starting up and with the shops closing, we headed to the casino.

Hotel is to far left, followed by casino and taller parking garage 

We had been to the Casino, well the Casino parking garage to take some photos a year or so ago, so it was no problem finding.    The casino is basically built in the former ore yard of the plant and the hotel, while connected to the casino is on the other side of the Minsi Trails Bridge, approximately on the former site of the dual gauge yard and engine facility.  The driveway and lobby are just across from the eastern end of Machine shop #2, which is still standing.  The hotel parking lot is the former site of the forging plant and later Weldment.   The only thing that remains of the forging operation is Heat Treatment #3, the first high house heat treatment facility at the plant.  A larger more modern one also remains as part of Lehigh Heavy Forge - just to the east of the casino.

View from our room on the sixth floor.  High House and Minsi Trails Bridge

We checked in and brought our bags to the room.  I'd requested a river view.  Our room was on the sixth floor with an excellent view of the #3 High House and of the former Lehigh Valley mainline.   This section of track is very busy - lots of mainline train movements east and west,  and the small, but very long,  yard along the edge of the parking lot is used by the Philadelphia, Bethlehem & New England to interchange traffic.  The PB&NE's SWs were busy with a lot of intermodal traffic from a facility elsewhere in the former steel plant.   I spent a decent amount of time just sitting by the window watching trains.  If you go, request the sixth floor or higher - probably the higher the better - hotel is I think 15 floors.   By the way, the hotel is clean and has modern stylish decor.  The rooms are large and set up for all your modern electronics.  The hallways of the hotel have numerous photos of Bethlehem Steel - only complaint is that it is slightly pricey for what you get and where - Bethlehem, PA.

It was late and we were hungry so we decided to check out the Casino.  We don't really gamble, a fact I proved by loosing $20 to slot machines in about 5 minutes and not even really understanding what I was doing in the mean time.  We watched a craps table and tried to figure out what was going on and couldn't so just never bothered the rest of the time we were there.  For those of you that do gamble however, the place was large and to me seemed cleaner than most Atlantic City casinos I've been in.  It was crowded all weekend (except for 7am this morning) but there still looked to be room to play if you wanted.  We figured the restaurants would be pricey but didn't feel like going back out so we settled on "Burgers and More" one of three of Emeril Lagasse's places in this casino.  I'm a bit of a food snob so I didn't have high expectations for this joint - just looking for a quick burger, however - BAMM.  I don't know how this guy makes a hamburger , cole slaw, chili, and cheese sticks taste so good, but he did.  Probably the best hamburger I have ever had.   The key seems to be all the sauces that go on everything and they were perfect.  

Now the casino is connected to the hotel by a long walkway - on one side I guess is meeting rooms and on the other is a shopping mall under construction.  The cool thing about this long hallway, besides the exercise is that every 20 feet there is a framed Bethlehem Steel Shop Drawing.  I spent more time in this hallway than in the casino.  My favorite was a plan of the Bethlehem Steel Sintering Plant - I photographed this drawing and have already printed it out for modeling purposes.

Breakfast with my lovely wife - note high line just over her head and blast furnace row

We got some deserts in the casino and brought them back to our room and called it a night.  We got up early saturday and had breakfast in the Foundry Room at the hotel (free continental breakfast)    The view is was pretty sweet from our table - looking straight down the former High Line with Machine Shop #2 on the left and the end of E-Furnace on the right.

 After breakfast I left on foot from the hotel with plans to meet my wife in the parking lot on the side of A-Furnace.  You can wall all the way from the hotel, along the High Line, crossing under it, and then between the end of Machine Shop #2 and the Blowing Engine House, emerging in front of blast furnace row.  All this on a public sidewalk.   While all the structures are fenced in, you are literally only feet from them.    While I was out that early there were at least another half dozen photographers taking photos - probably not steel geeks,  but more arty type photos.   The new arts center there, Steel Stacks, has used two older craneways to sort of form a portal.  My only objection to anything  here was some jack hole "artist" painting some large Chinese characters on the exterior of one of the old buildings - like pissing on someones grave.
A, B, and C Furnaces - You can get as close as the Highline
By the time I got to the car I was totally photographed out and we headed north to Jim Thorpe.    I always like this drive, heading through cement country up into Anthracite Coal Country.  Passing the lonely bridge abutments of the former Lehigh and New England RR's bridge across the Lehigh always moves me for some reason.  The terrain seems different here, with more exposed rock than elsewhere.

Jim Thorpe was pretty crowded by the time we arrived.  The "fall festival" proved a bit of a sham with only a dozen or so vendors and half that many food people.  Still my wife managed to find trinkets here and there throughout the various shops in town.

Shopping on the streets of Jim Thorpe
We left Jim Thorpe and headed east toward the Delaware, spending much of the remaining afternoon on back roads working our way down through the country back toward Bethlehem.  Just outside town I stopped at a decent hobby shop I had been at once before, just off Rt 33? north of Easton.  Mixed hobbies but lots of trains, in all scales.  I picked up a few Walther's  Modular building panels and also some NCE Block Detectors for an upcoming signaling project.  From there I stopped at a weapons store in Easton, PA called SARCO - I needed a new flash suppressor for my AR-15 - just kidding, but they do sell parts for pretty much every machine gun ever made.  I wanted to look at the large collection of military collectable they have.  Quite a few very interesting things, but too pricey for me.  Arriving back in Bethlehem we stopped back at Steel Stacks to check out the interior now that it was open.  There is a nice gift store there that I bought a Bethlehem Steel Shirt and a book called "30 years under the beam."  The fourth floor open deck as nice views of the blast furnaces and you can see down into the open end of the blowing engine house.      We had mostly skipped lunch and were craving some more of those Emeril burgers so we headed back to the casino for dinner.
Purple Blast Furnaces for Halloween I Guess
Following dinner we drove back over to Bethlehem (the part on the north side of the river) for more shopping.  I found a figurine from one of my favorite childhood movies, Jason and the Argonauts.  There was some sort of fashion event going on so the streets were filled with well dressed models -  I had to really concentrate on where I turned my head in order to avoid a slap to the back of my head.   We got some ice cream and called it a night.

We slept in a bit on sunday, although, I made an early morning foray through the casino and then to the upper levels of the casino parking garage for some nice shots of Lehigh Heavy Forge.  Breakfast looking at the Highline, and then we checked out.  We drove past the furnaces one last time and headed south, taking back roads and hitting some prime shopping areas through northern Bucks County, PA.   In all, a very pleasant weekend.   I know there has been a lot on the internet unfavorable as to what is going on in Bethlehem, but I must say I was pleasantly surprised.  When I was 18 I took my life in my hands walking across a frozen canal just to get a photo of the Bethlehem Steel blast furnaces from across the river - and then a few years later going on a tour of the plant, but not being able to take any photos - this is for sure much more fun, just walking right up to them.

Lehigh Heavy Forge from Casino Parking Garage